Bridging the divide: Exploring inequities between sworn and civilian leaders in a Canadian police service.


  • Tammy Pozzobon
  • Shelleyann Scott



leadership, organizational culture, healthy workplace, psychological safety, organizational change


Policing in the 21st century has rapidly become more complex, accountable, and changeable. Concern has emerged across the globe over the sustainability of public policing. Empirical research has supported that effective leadership at all levels of an organization is necessary to achieve success. Much has been said about the importance of effective leadership in policing. This paper explores an unexpected key finding from a mixed-methods, explanatory sequential design doctoral study that examined the self-efficacy beliefs and the factors that have influenced the leader effectiveness of sworn and civilian police leaders in a major Canadian police organization.

Author Biographies

Tammy Pozzobon

Dr. Tammy Pozzobon M.O.M. is an Assistant Professor and program head for the multi-sectoral Master of Arts in Leadership in the School of Leadership Studies at Royal Roads University, Canada. Tam was a career police officer for 31 years and held many varied leadership positions within policing, including Superintendent of Operations at Calgary Police Service, Alberta, Canada. In 2019, Tam was a recipient of the Order of Merit of the Police Forces for exceptional service to community and country. Her passion is helping leaders become better leaders. Tam’s research interests include police reform, leadership development, change leadership, values-based leadership, and building inclusive organizational cultures.

Shelleyann Scott

Dr Shelleyann Scott (PhD) is a Professor, and Chair of the Leadership, Policy & Governance specialization, University of Calgary, Canada. Shelley is the coordinator of the doctoral programs in Leadership (Senior Leadership & Post-secondary Leadership programs – EdD & PhD). She is currently President of the Canadian Society for Studies in Education (CSSE). She has international experience as an educator, leader, and professional developer working across 15 countries. Her research is multi-sector and includes: leadership, leadership development, professional development, assessment, and teaching and learning. Her leadership roles include: school district curriculum leadership, university chair of department, associate dean, director, and program designer and coordinator roles.



12-05-2024 — Updated on 13-05-2024


How to Cite

Pozzobon, T., & Scott, S. (2024). Bridging the divide: Exploring inequities between sworn and civilian leaders in a Canadian police service. International Journal for Leadership in Learning, 24(1), 128–153. (Original work published May 12, 2024)